- the easternmost province in Canada
- makes up only 4.06% of Canada’s area
- coastline stretches over more than 17,000 kilometres
- provincial capital St. John’s
- provincial flower Pitcher Plant
- provincial bird Common Puffin
- Newfoundland has its own time zone, the Newfoundland Time Zone, and is 3.5 hours behind Greenwich Mean Time
- Labrador is in the Atlantic Time Zone
Located at the mouth of the St. Lawrence River, Newfoundland is roughly triangular, with each side approximately 400 kilometers, and a total area of 108,860 square kilometers. Newfoundland and its associated small islands have a total area of some 112,000 square kilometers.
Labrador is bordered by northeastern Quebec and is approximately two and a half times as large as the island. It comprises 72.5 percent of the land area of the province, but contains only 5.3 percent of the population. Labrador’s extreme northern tip shares a short border with Nunavut. Labrador’s area (including associated small islands) is 294,330 square kilometers.
Geography – The Long Range Mountains on Newfoundland’s west coast are the north easternmost extension of the Appalachian Mountains. Newfoundland has a rolling, rugged topography with much of the island as well as southern and central Labrador covered by thick boreal forest, broken by numerous lakes and swift-flowing rivers.
Climate – The island of Newfoundland enjoys winters that are surprisingly mild by Canadian standards, between 0°C (32°F)and -5°C (23°F), though with a high rate of precipitation throughout the year. The average summer temperature in Newfoundland is between 10°C and 20°C (50°F and 68°F).
Labrador, by comparison, has cold winters, between 10°C and -25°C (+50°F and 13°F), and brief summers with temperatures between 5°C and 15°C (41°F and 60°F). The climate can best be described as moderate and maritime.
The Atlantic Ocean, including storms, fog, strong and variable winds, heavy precipitation, and cold temperatures have an impact on the land and the people. As well, poor soil drainage, cold currents, offshore pack ice, and icebergs also have a major impact.
The north-south extent of the province, prevalent westerly winds, cold ocean currents and local factors such as mountains and coastline combine to create the various climates of the province. Northern Labrador is classified as a polar tundra climate, southern Labrador is considered to be a subarctic climate while most of Newfoundland is considered a humid continental climate.
National Parks of Newfoundland & Labrador – Newfoundland and Labrador Canada have three national parks. Torngat Park is in the mountains of Labrador, bordering Quebec. Gros Morne National Park is situated on the western coast of the island and Terra Nova National Park is on the north eastern Atlantic Coast.